The energy range pertaining to the shin region of the cosmic ray (CR) energy spectrum is noteworthy in that propagation shifts from diffusive to ballistic with increasing energy. At the same time, the transition from Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) to extragalactic cosmic rays (EGCRs) in this energy range, the details of which hitherto not certain.
This talk details the approach I employed in the study of the propagation effects of the GMF on GCRs and EGCRs. We begin with a brief comparison of the two numerical approaches utilisable in this energy range (the Transport Equation approach and the Equation of Motion approach), followed by an outline of the simulation setup and a brief discussion of necessary considerations pertaining to it. After this, the arising propagation effects are presented, along with their effects on CR observables, and finally the physical implications for the shin region are drawn.